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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2022
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-49

Online since Wednesday, April 27, 2022

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Us and Them: Can Social Psychiatry help in an Intolerant, Xenophobic World Afflicted with “Social Autoimmune Disorders”? p. 1
Debasish Basu
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The Culture of Bullying in Medical Training Must Stop p. 4
Migita Michael D'Cruz
Among the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics professions, medical training continues to carry remnants of the medieval concept of apprenticeship. A lingering hangover of apprenticeship in medicine is the culture of teaching through shame, embarrassment, and humiliation that has persisted over the years. Estimates of the prevalence of bullying in medicine vary from as little as 13% to as high as 81%, with considerable reason to suspect under-reporting. The consequences of bullying approximate that of abuse in early childhood and are often long-lasting. Burnout, a decline in performance as a resident doctor, and depression are commonly reported consequences of bullying and abuse on medical students. Only a minority of medical students ever report abuse due to trust deficit and fear of retribution. Most medical program directors appear to be unaware of the scope and extent of abuse occurring under their watch. Most victims of bullying appear to become bullies themselves, perpetuating the bully-victim cycle of abuse. Traditional power hierarchies play a role in bullying in the medical profession, as in other professions. The cost of bullying and abuse to the health and welfare of medical students is considerable. There is a strong case to be made for compassion in medicine and for bringing back humanity into the medical humanities. Medical training must not a barrier to medical learning. The safety of survivors of abuse must also be addressed while reporting to protect them from repercussions. We must work to make training spaces safe for medical students.
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Migration to High-Income Countries: A Panacea for Social Deprivation in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Mental Health Perspective p. 10
Abolaji Paul Adekeye
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A Scoping Review of the Venezuelan Migration in Three South American Countries: Sociocultural and Mental Health Perspectives p. 13
Renato D Alarcon, José Ordoñez- Mancheno, Elvia Velásquez, Alina Uribe, Antonio Lozano-Vargas, Silvia Gaviria, Miriam Lucio
Background/Objectives: Migrations are among the most complex social phenomena in the history of mankind. In Latin America, the Venezuelan migration (VM) of the last two decades has altered the emotional dynamics of the migrant themselves and the populations of host countries such as Colombia, Ecuador, and Perú. In order to point out strategies of management and prevention, this review examines the sociocultural variables at play during the process, and the main mental health problems faced by the VM protagonists in these three Andean countries. Methods: This is a narrative/scoping review of diverse and reliable information sources about the VM in the three countries. Data are grouped in two sections: sociocultural variables and specific mental health impact. Results: Findings reflect both qualitative and quantitative information about reasons to migrate, educational level, living conditions and response from host communities, as well as mental illnesses prevalence related to experiences such as victimization by discriminatory/xenophobic behaviors, criminalization, and abuses. Conclusions: The impact of the VM has been intense and multiform on both migrant and host populations, unveiling individual, collective, social/community, and government/administrative vulnerabilities. National and international agencies must propitiate collaborative research and public/mental health initiatives for a better management of general and specific aspects of the process.
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Social Anxiety Disorder among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Association with Self-esteem and Personality Traits p. 24
Adetunji Obadeji, Banji Ferdinand Kumolalo
Background: Social phobia impacts negatively on the social and academic life of students and exerts a detrimental effect on the quality of life of the bearer. The study examined the burden of social anxiety disorder (SAD), the relationship of SAD with sociodemographic variables and self-esteem, and the big five personality traits correlates of both SAD and self-esteem among undergraduate students. Methods: Participants completed the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), the Big Five Personality Trait Inventory (BFPI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The relationships between variables were explored using bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results: Two hundred and eighty (62.5%) participants reported significant SAD, mostly in the mild form (50.9%). There was a significant negative correlation between the SPIN scores and the total score on BFPI, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and self-esteem and a positive correlation with the neuroticism subscale. Similarly, a significant positive correlation with self-esteem and agreeableness, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a negative correlation between neuroticism subscale of BFPI were noted. Younger age also significantly increased the risk of social anxiety among the participants. Conclusions: The burden of social phobia among the undergraduate students was high, and highly correlated with personality traits and self-esteem. The study underscores the need to consider several factors in reducing social performance anxiety among undergraduate students with central effort geared toward reducing neuroticism and promotion of positive self-imagery and appraisal.
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Parenting in the Current COVID-19 Reality – Understanding and Addressing Parental Concerns using a Qualitative Methodology p. 31
Harshini Manohar, Puneet Khanna, Shekhar Seshadri, Tess Maria Rajan, Amit Jha, R Amrtavarshini, Haralahalli D Bhagyavathi, Prasanna Kumar Neredumilli, Raghavendra Kumar
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought in significant changes in the lifestyles of families worldwide. This study is aimed to look at the parental perspectives and concerns related to the challenges in parenting in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic through qualitative methodology. Methods: The dataset for the study was the queries raised by parents who participated in a parent training program that addressed concerns related to parenting in the initial phase of the pandemic situation (April 2020). Two training sessions were conducted by one of the authors as part of community outreach activities in the department of child and adolescent psychiatry at a tertiary care academic institute of national importance. Content analysis was used to analyze the dataset manually. Results: The major themes that emerged were concerns related to handling children in home-bound situation, handing siblings of different age groups, caring for children with developmental disorders, managing work-life balance, concerns related to screen time among children, and general parenting-related queries for young children and adolescents. Based on the themes emerged, information pamphlets addressing these specific concerns were prepared for wide dissemination among parents. Conclusion: This study attempted to understand the parental perspectives and experiences related to parenting challenges in the current pandemic situation. Parental narratives highlighted some of the unique challenges pertaining to the “new normal.” Disseminating educational and informational resources during the pandemic are an essential systemic response that will benefit the community in resource-limited settings.
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The Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 on People with and without Severe Mental Illness in Tamil Nadu, India p. 37
Joseph Lam, Sujit John, Tessa Roberts, Amaldoss Kulandesu, Karthick Samikannu, Kruthika Devanathan, Triplicane Chakravarthy Ramesh Kumar, Ramachandran Padmavati, Jothy Ramadoss Aynkaran, Georgina Miguel Esponda, Craig Morgan, Thara Rangawsamy
Background/Objectives: People living with severe mental illness may be more susceptible to infection and stress, leading to relapses or worsening of their mental health. The experiences of people with severe mental illness during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have seldom been captured. This study set to describe the experience of people with severe mental illness in Tamil Nadu, India, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Between July and December 2020, 158 age-, gender-, neighborhood-matched case − control pairs from the INTREPID II study completed a survey regarding their experience, worries, and behavioral changes during the pandemic. Their responses were collected by phone during six-monthly check-ins, or in-person at 24-month follow-up appointments. Only the first response for each participant is included in this report. Results: None of our participants reported knowingly having been infected with COVID-19 by the time of the survey. There is no evidence that people with psychoses were disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Unemployment and financial hardship were highly prevalent in both cases and controls. Job-related anxiety and stress were the largest source of worry, followed by worries regarding government decisions and access to mobile phones. Conclusions: The pandemic placed great strain on participants both with and without severe mental illness. The impact of unemployment and financial hardship as a result of COVID-19 requires urgent attention.
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The Need to Improve Resources for the Prevention and Treatment of Gambling-Related Mental Health Issues in Italy p. 46
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
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Nicotine Replacement Therapy Commercials: Pros and Cons p. 48
Adesh Kumar Agrawal, Partha Pratim Daimary, Soumitra Das
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